After high school followed his older brother Floyd through the same educational path. A… He went on to define personality as “the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to the environment.” Let us look at this … In this view, intergroup contact under positive conditions can reduce social prejudice. Discover the real story, facts, and details of Gordon Allport. He was the youngest of four brothers and was often described as shy, but also hard-working and studious. In a review of the most influential psychologists of the 20th century, Allport was ranked as the 11th most eminent psychologist.. Gordon Willard Allport was an American psychologist. Allport GW. Gordon Allport's landmark book, The nature of prejudice, defined the field of intergroup relations for social psychologists as the study of prejudice and its effects on group interactions. As one of the founding figures of personality psychology, his lasting influence is still felt today. He also made important contributions to the analysis of prejudice in The Nature of Prejudice (1954). The self, he contended, is an identifiable organization within each individual and accounts for the unity of personality, higher motives, and continuity of personal memories. By Floyd H. Allport & Gordon W. Allport (1921) First Published in Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 16, 6-40. Being an early pioneer of the study of traits, he is known as a trait psychologist. Full name : Gordon Allport How old is Gordon Allport: 70 years Male 🎂 Birthday: November 11, 1897 🔯 Sun sign: Scorpio 🌍 Nationality: Indiana, United States Gordon Allport Education: harvard university, glenville high school; Gordon Allport siblings: Floyd Henry Allport #Youtube: Gordon Allport Youtube #Twitter: Gordon Allport Twitter In addition to his trait theory of personality, he left an indelible mark on psychology. Gordon Allport identified personality traits as fitting into three levels within a hierarchy. Allport, GW. Instead of th By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Harvard University; Department of Psychology. His most significant contributions include a theory of personality, which highlighted the self and the proprium, the latter defined as ‘all the regions of our life that we regard as peculiarly ours’ (see Becoming, 1955 While it may have been defined in many ways, Gordon Allport defined traits as “a generalized neuropsychic system (peculiar to an individual), with the capacity to render many stimuli functionally equivalent, and to initiate and guide consistent (equivalent) forms of adaptive and expressive behavior”. Appointed a social science instructor at Harvard University in 1924, he became professor of psychology six years later and, in the last year of his life, … We never fully achieve them.” ― … Omissions? During his childhood, his father used the family home to house and treat patients. At this point in psychology history, behaviorism had become the dominant force in the United States, and psychoanalysis remained a powerful influence. Gordon Allport was born in Montezuma, Indiana, on November 11, 1897. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston; 1961. The relationship between prejudice and categorical thinking was first systematically explored by Gordon Allport (1954) in his classic book The Nature of Prejudice. He was the 1st psychologist who gave thorough thought to the concept of traits. Gordon Willard Allport “Father of Personality Theories” 3. He contributed to the formation of values scales and rejected both a psychoanalytic approach to personality, which he thought often was too deeply interpretive, and a behavioral approach, which he thought did not provide deep enough interpretations from their data. Functional autonomy is … Although Allport recognized the emotional, social, economic, and historic dimensions of prejudice, he also proposed that prejudice is partly an outgrowth of normal human functioning. His family moved to Cleveland, Ohio, when Allport was six years old, and he was raised in the same home out of which his father practiced medicine. Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. Gordon Allport was a pioneering psychologist often referred to as one of the founders of personality psychology. Today, he is perhaps best remembered for his contributions to the trait theory of personality. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Gordon-W-Allport, How Stuff Works - Health - Gordon W. Allport, “Personality: A Psychological Interpretation”. November 11 Horoscope. Appointed a social science instructor at Harvard University in 1924, he became professor of psychology six years later and, in the last year of his life, professor of social ethics. Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Rather than focusing on the psychoanalytic and behavioral approaches that were popular during his time, Allport instead chose to utilize an eclectic approach. Pattern and Growth in Personality. Gordon Allport was born in Montezuma, Indiana, on November 11, 1897. His important introductory work on the theory of personality was Personality: A Psychological Interpretation (1937). The boy, Allport explained, was afraid of getting dirty and refused to sit where a dirty-looking man had previously sat. He rejected two of the dominant schools of thought in psychology at the time, psychoanalysis and behaviorism, in favor of his own approach that stressed the importance of individual differences and situational variables. His father was a country doctor, which meant that Gordon grew up with his father’s patients and nurses and all the paraphernalia of a miniature hospital. NOW 50% OFF! Instead, Allport chose to reject both psychoanalysis and behaviorism and embraced his own unique approach to personality. In an essay entitled "Pattern and Growth in Personality," Allport recounted his experience of meeting psychiatrist Sigmund Freud. Explore Gordon Allport's biography, personal life, family and cause of death. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston; 1937. Allport called this concept functional autonomy. Allport operated his own printing business during his teen years and … Allport was one of the first psychologists to focus on the study of the personality, and is often referred to as one of the founding figures of personality psychology. During his childhood, his father used the family home to house and treat patients. His work as a teacher also had a profound effect on some of his students, including Stanley Milgram, Jerome S. Bruner, Leo Postman, Thomas Pettigrew, and Anthony Greenwald. Gordon Allport has been recognized for his work in the field of personality psychology, which was instituted as an autonomous psychological discipline since 1920. Gordon Allport was born in Indiana, the youngest of four boys. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... psychologists Gordon W. Allport and Leo Postman offered the generalization that rumour intensity is high when both the interest in an event and its ambiguity are great. Personality: a Psychological Interpretation. Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. Other articles where Becoming is discussed: Gordon Allport: In Becoming (1955) he stressed the importance of self and the uniqueness of adult personality. We provide an overview of the type and trait theory of personality as developed by this famous psychologist. During his first year at Harvard, he taught what was most likely the first personality psychology class offered in the United States. ALLPORT, GORDON WILLARD. Research on Predjudice and Discrimination Gordon Willard Allport spent nearly his entire academic career at Harvard, completing both his bachelor’s degree and his PhD at the university, and serving as a faculty member from 1930 – 1967. In 1915, Allport graduated second in his class and earned a scholarship to Harvard College, where one of his older brothers, Floyd Henry Allport, was working on a Ph.D. in psychology. He began developing this theory by going through a dictionary and noting every term he found that described a personality trait. Gordon Allport is a pioneering figure in the field of personality psychology. Allport is perhaps best known for his trait theory of personality. Allport GW. If you feel curious and want to learn about the other personality types (like A, C, and D) and the illnesses and risk factors associated with each, remember the following: Haggbloom SJ, Warnick R, Warnick JE, et al.The 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century. I. In the 1950s, Gordon Allport introduced the intergroup-contact hypothesis. What the Trait Theory Says About How Our Personalities Are Composed, Wilhelm Wundt Profile: The Father of Psychology, A Brief Biography of Social Psychologist Stanley Milgram, How Personality Influences Behavior, According to Psychology, G. Stanley Hall's Important Contributions to Psychology, Biography of Applied Psychologist Hugo Münsterberg, Sigmund Freud's Remarkable Life and Legacy in Psychology, 10 Things You Might Not Know About Sigmund Freud, B. F. Skinner: The Life of Psychology's Radical Behaviorist, Life and Career of Psychologist Raymond Cattell, The Life and Theories of Psychologist William James, How Erik Erikson's Own Identity Crisis Shaped His Theories, How Psychoanalysis Influenced the Field of Psychology, Daily Tips for a Healthy Mind to Your Inbox. The book was written by Gordon Allport in the early 1950s and first published by Addison-Wesley in 1954. His mother was a schoolteacher and his father was a doctor who instilled in Allport a strong work ethic. The experience would later serve as a reminder that psychoanalysis tended to dig too deeply. Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Born in Indiana in 1897, Gordon Allport was one of four children. The 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century. After earning his bachelor's degree in philosophy and economics from Harvard in 1919, Allport traveled to Istanbul, Turkey, to teach philosophy and economics. Freud studied Allport for a moment and then asked, "And was that little boy you?". Allport came from a working family that valued health and education. “Philosophically speaking, values are the termini of our intentions. Emily is a fact checker, editor, and writer who has expertise in psychology content.Â. Trivia He divided human traits into three distinct categories: cardinal traits that dominate an individual's personality, central traits are shared across the majority of the population, and secondary traits which are unique to the individuals. He was one of the first psychologists to focus on the study of personality. When he was 22, Allport traveled to Vienna, Austria, to meet the famous psychoanalyst. This resulted in Allport developing a great interest in understanding human motivation, impulses, and personality, resulting in his trait theory of personality. The less than adequate hospital facilities in Cleveland required that Allport’s father allow doctors, nurses, and patients to reside in the home with the family. FUN FACTS Gordon Allport were born on Thursday, birthstone is Topaz, the seaon was Fall in the Chinese year of, Today is the birthday of Gordon Allport. Allport began working at Harvard in 1924 and later left to accept a position at Dartmouth. First published in 1954, The Nature of Prejudice remains the standard work on discrimination. After entering Freud's office, he sat down nervously and told a story about a young boy he had seen on the train during his travels to Vienna. Gordon Allport (1897 – 1967) was a well-respected and influential American scholar in the psychology field. Gordon Allport. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! Gordon Allport's Impact on Psychology of the Personality, Ⓒ 2020 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved. He was one of the first psychologists to focus on the study of personality. He was the youngest of four brothers and was often described as shy, but also hard-working and studious. Review of General Psychology.2002;6(2):139-152. doi:10.1037//1089-2680.6.2.139. Allport pioneered research on human personality. Read our, How Cardinal Traits Are Used to Describe Someone's Personality. Allport earned his Ph.D. in psychology in 1922 under the guidance of Hugo Munsterberg. ( b. Montezuma, Indiana, 11 November 1897; d. Cambridge, Massachusetts, 9 October 1967) psychology, psychology of personality, social psychology. Gordon W. Allport (1897-1967). Thomas F. Pettigrew and Kerstin Hammann selected, as the book's most lasting contribution, its success in redefining the relation between intergroup contact and prejudice. By 1930, he returned to Harvard, where he would remain for the rest of his academic career. After compiling a list of 4,504 ​different traits, he organized them into three different trait categories, including: Allport died on October 9, 1967.